Keroncong Music came to Indonesia around 1512, when the Portuguese expedition led by Alfonso de Albuquerque came to Malacca and Maluku in 1512. Of course, the Portuguese sailors brought the Fado song, the Arabic folk song Arabic (minor scales, Because the Moorish Arabs once colonized the Portuguese / Spanish in 711 – 1492. Fado songs still exist in Latin America (former Spanish colonies), as sung by Trio Los Panchos or Los Paraguayos, as well as songs in West Sumatra.
When the Portuguese prisoners and Goa (India) slaves in Village were liberated in 1661 by the Dutch East Indies Government, they were required to convert from Catholicism to Protestantism, so the habit of singing Fado’s song should be singing as in the Protestant Church, major scale. Furthermore, in 1880 Keroncong music was born, and this early Keroncong music also influenced the Hawaiian song in the major scale, which is also growing rapidly in Indonesia.
DEVELOPMENT OF KERONCONG MUSIC
Keroncong is one of the Indonesian folk music that developed since the XIX century, divided into three developments: keroncong tempo doeloe (1880-1920), abadi cross (1920-1960), and modern keroncong (1960-present). Keroncong is a kind of Indonesian music that has a historical relationship with a kind of Portuguese music known as fado. The history of keroncong in Indonesia can be drawn to the end of the 16th century, when the Portuguese power began to weaken in the archipelago.
Keroncong originated from the music played by slaves and Portuguese officers from the Indian mainland (Goa) and Maluku. Early form of music is called moresco, which is accompanied by musical instrument dawai. development, entering a number of traditional elements of the archipelago, such as the use of flute and some components of the gamelan. In the nineteenth century this form of mixed music was popular in many parts of the archipelago, even to the Malay Peninsula. This golden age continued until about the 1960s, and then dimmed as a result of the influx of popular music waves (rock music that developed since 1950 , And the richness of Beatle music and the like since 1961 until now). Nevertheless, keroncong music is still played and enjoyed by various layers of society in Indonesia and Malaysia until now.
Original Keroncong consists of 28 bars without intro and koda in a 4/4 bar. The shape of the song is three sections of A-B-C which are sung twice. Examples of original keroncong songs are Keroncong Broom Lid creations NN, Keroncong Pure Goddess creation Sariwono and Oetjin N, and Keroncong Suci creation Ismail Marzuki.
Song keroncong style consisting of 32 bars without intro and koda with a sign 4/4. The shape of the song is A-A-B-A. Song keroncong style usually performed twice but on repetition of both parts AA performed instrumental and vocals then in sentence B then followed by part A. Examples of keroncong songs styles are Langgam Bengawan Solo creation Gesang, Langgam Solo City creation Samsidi, and Langgam Pahlawan Merdeka creation Ismail Marzuki.
Examples of keroncong stambul song is Stambul Debut Creation Ismail Marzuki and Stambul Baju Biru NN. Kind of keroncong song Stambul has two forms, namely Stambul I and Stambul II. Explanation song keroncong stambul type is as follows: Keroncong Stambul I. Song Keroncong Stambul I has the characteristics of a number of bourees of 16, 4/4 bars, A-B sentences, and improvised poetry. Kind of keroncong song Stambul I is often shaped music and vocals mutually shouted, namely two instrumental bars and the next two filled by vocals. And so on until the song ends. Keroncong Stambul II. Song of Keroncong Stambul II has the characteristic of the number of barbeers twice 16 bars in the 4/4 bar. The form of the phrase song keroncong Stambul II is A-B with the lyrics of improvisation.
The extra keroncong song type is a deviant form of the three types of keroncong above. Extra keroncong songs are cheerful and witty and influenced by Malay music.
keroncong music tools
In its earliest form, moresco is accompanied by string music, such as violin, ukulele, and cello. Percussion is also sometimes used. This kind of orchestra is still used by keroncong Tugu, a form of keroncong still played by the community of Portuguese slave descendants from Ambon who live in Kampung Tugu, North Jakarta, which then develops southwards in Kemayoran and Gambir by the Betawi people mingle with the music of Tanjidor (year 1880-1920). In 1920-1960 the center of development moved to Solo, and adapted to a slower rhythm according to the nature of the Javanese.
The “indigenous” -the Keroncong converts
keroncong music tools
In its earliest form, moresco is accompanied by string music, such as violin, ukulele, and cello. Percussion is also sometimes used. This kind of orchestra is still used by keroncong Tugu, a form of keroncong still played by the community of Portuguese slave descendants from Ambon who live in village Tugu, North Jakarta, which then develops southwards in Kemayoran and Gambir by the Betawi people mingle with the music of Tanjidor (year 1880-1920). In 1920-1960 the center of development moved to Solo, and adapted to a slower rhythm according to the nature of the Javanese.
The “native” -the keroncong made it a mixed art, with musical instruments like
CURRENTLY, MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE ORCHESTRA INCLUDE KERONCONG
Ukulele cuk, 3 string (nylon), the order of the tone is G, B and E; As the main musical instrument voicing crong – crongsehingga called keroncong (discovered in 1879 in Hawaii, and is the beginning of the milestone of kroncong music begins) Ukulele cak, 4 stringed (steel), the order of the tone A, D, Fis, and B. So when the other instrument plays the C ladder, cak play on the F-chart (known as F);
As a melodic guitar, played in counter-contraption style (anti-melody);
Violin (replacing Rebab); Since made by Amati or Stradivarius from Cremona Italy around 1600 has never changed its model until now;
In the Era of Tempo Doeloe using Albert Flute (black wooden flute with hole and valve, sound rather broken, examples of Lief Java orchestra), while in Era Keroncong Abadi has been wearing Bohm Flute (all metal flute with valve, Smoother sound with beautiful tone ornaments, Sunarno flutist example from Solo or Beny Waluyo from Jakarta);
Replacing the drums, also never changed since made by Amati and Stradivarius of Cremona Italy 1600, only in keroncong plays typically picked / pizzicato. Kontrabas (replace Gong), also bass picked, has not changed since Amati and Stradivarius from Cremona Italy 1600 made it;
The rhythm guard is held by ukulele and bass. The rhythmic counterrapuntist and cello guitar set the chord transition. Violin serves as a guide melody, as well as decoration / ornament below. Flut fills the top decoration, which hovers filling the empty melody room. The form of keroncong mixed with popular music now uses a single organ as well as a synthesizer to accompany the keroncong song (on a single organ party stage that can play keroncong, dangdut, rock, polka, mars).